Diabetes currently affects more than 150 million people worldwide and that number is expected to quickly increase. Over 90% of people with the disease have Type II form, which is associated with obesity and overweight, lack of physical activity, family history, and older age. Unlike Type I diabetes in which the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin, the pancreas in patients with Type II diabetes produces enough insulin, but for unknown reasons, the body is unable to use the insulin. Diabetes can lead to blindness, heart, and blood vessel disease, strokes, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Current therapies, which include diet, exercise, oral antidiabetic drugs, and insulin, do not always cure the disease.
TRADITIONAL THERAPY FOR DIABETES
The goal of treatment is to improve the symptoms of diabetes through normalizing blood glucose levels. The ongoing goals are to prevent long-term complications like eye and kidney disease, damage of nerves, and blood vessels. The strict control of blood glucose reduces the risk of death, stroke, heart failure, and other complications. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) is a test that determines the risk of long-term complications. It measures how much glucose has been sticking to red blood cells and other cells.
First-line treatment for type II diabetes
The first-line treatment for type II diabetes is weight loss, diet, and exercise. Appropriate meal planning includes choosing healthy foods and eating the right amount of food. Exercise is important for effective treatment of diabetes. Regular exercising helps burning excess calories, managing weight thus improves control of the glucose amount in the blood.
Second-line treatment for type II diabetes
When diet and exercise are not sufficient to maintain normal blood glucose levels, medications may be needed. They work through triggering the pancreas to make more insulin, helping insulin work better, decreasing the absorption of carbohydrates from the gut, or decreasing glucose production in the liver.
Third-line treatment for type II diabetes
Poor blood glucose control despite lifestyle changes and taking medications means insulin should be injected.
ROLE OF SURGERY
Despite continuing advances in diabetes pharmacotherapy, fewer than half of adults with type II diabetes mellitus (T2D) attain therapeutic goals designed to reduce long-term risks of complications, especially for glycemic control, and lifestyle interventions are disappointing in the long term. Metabolic surgery, on the other hand, has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis more effectively than any known pharmaceutical or behavioural approach.
For the patients having diabetes for less than 5 years, there is a high likelihood of achieving normal blood sugar levels without any medications. If the person is obese and not yet requiring Insulin his chances of complete stoppage of medication and still achieving normal sugar levels are very high. If they are having very poorly controlled diabetes, are on a high dose of insulin, and are having diabetes for a very long time, surgery helps in achieving normal sugar levels with decreased requirements of Insulin and medications. Such patients may still need medications but they can achieve good glycemic control leading to the prevention of diabetes-related complications
While Metabolic surgery( Surgery for Diabetes) certainly has some risk, the long-term risk of continued diabetes (which is often inadequately treated with medication) typically outweighs the risk of a surgical procedure for most patients. Each patient’s individual risks for surgery, though, should be evaluated in the context of the duration and severity of their diabetes as well as their other obesity-related health problems.
THE EARLIER THE SURGERY, THE BETTER THE OUTCOME
A key finding of many studies is that the shorter the history of diabetes, the greater the likelihood of complete remission. Glucose toxicity, particularly in poorly controlled diabetes, accelerates B-cell failure. B-cells are located in the pancreas and produce and secrete insulin. Weight loss can improve B-cell responsiveness to glucose. If the bariatric surgical procedure is performed before irreversible B-cell failure has occurred, durable weight loss will be accompanied by a high likelihood of long-term remission.
TYPES OF METABOLIC SURGERY
There are various metabolic/bariatric procedures available to you. Each one is having certain benefits and some negative aspects. You should understand each one in detail and discuss with your surgeon which one is best suited for you. The choice of procedure will depend on your weight, BMI, medical problems, age, and your expectation from this surgery.
For more detail, you can read our articles related to obesity and diabetes.
- SURGERY FOR DIABETES/METABOLIC SURGERY: CAN DIABETES BE CURED?
- Patient’s Guide to Bariatric Surgery
- THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE YOUR BARIATRIC (OBESITY) SURGERY
- BARIATRIC (OBESITY) SURGERY IN ELDERLY MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS: UNDERSTANDING THE SITUATION
- Fight against Obesity: Respective roles of Bariatric (weight loss) surgery and Lifestyle Modification
- Do not Ignore your Obesity- There is a solution to all your problems
- HAVING CHRONIC COUGH AND BREATHING PROBLEMS! IS IT DUE TO OBESITY OR ACID REFLUX?
- WHAT DETERMINES LIFELONG MAINTENANCE OF WEIGHT LOSS AFTER A BARIATRIC SURGERY?
- डायाबिटीस के लिए सर्जरी/ मेटाबोलिक सर्जरी: क्या डायाबिटीस सम्पूर्ण रूप से ठीक हो सकता है?
- ડાયાબિટીસ માટેની સર્જરી/મેટાબોલિક સર્જરી: શું ડાયાબિટીસ મટી શકે ?
- एसिड रिफ्लक्स, एसिडिटी या GERD: खान पान और जीवनशैली के बदलाव
- WHY THE TYPE AND QUALITY OF HERNIA SURGERY IS CRUCIAL!
- ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE AFTER HERNIA SURGERY
- GERD/ACID REFLUX/HEARTBURN: DIET AND LIFESTYLE
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- हर्निया सर्जरी के बाद कार्य क्षमता, सक्रियता और कसरत
- क्रोनिक पेनक्रिआटाइटिस: बुनियादी जानकारी, निदान और इलाज
- एकेलेसिआ कार्डीया: खुराक निगलने की समस्या का महत्वपूर्ण कारन
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