Ano-rectal problems are quite common in the general population. Many a times medical help is not taken out of embarrassment. The main causes are of these problems is constipation and diet issues.
Though a blanket term piles is used for all such problems actually there are different diseases affecting the ano-rectal region. They are
Haemorrhoids or Piles
They usually present with fresh red blood in stool. They are very rarely painful except a complication called thrombosed or prolapsed piles. Very often the patient presents with anaemia due to recurrent and massive blood loos. Except very large in size or causing recurrent bleeding they can be treated conservatively with medications. Rest would need a surgery for their problems. The newer surgical technique using the PPH Staplers gives very fast recovery after surgery and does not need the long term dressings required with the older technique. Most of these surgeries are done as a day care surgery, which means that the patient can be discharged the same day.
Fissures are the crack at the very gentle and sensitive skin of the region. It usually causes severe pain on passing motion and a steak of blood with stool. Again the main cause is constipation. Most of the times, it improves with medications. Rarely, if it does not improve or causes recurrent problems, a minor surgery that cure the problem with good results in expert hands. There is a small risk of incontinence to stool and flatus in these surgeries, but done with the standard protocols overall results are promising.
These are the infective disease of this region with formation of pus. Mostly it is due to the infection of the mucosal glands in this region. Most such cases would need some form of surgical treatment. Very rarely the anal fistula can be very complex and needs expert care. Such complex or high fistulas are tricky to treat. Surgery for such complex fistula has a high rate of recurrence and complications. Such complex fistula may need staged surgical procedures to reduce the complications and recurrence. This may seem frustrating and annoying but gives better results at long term follow up.